Aspects of treatment

Find below a list of research papers on aspects of the treatment of acute malnutrition.

Please let us know if there are other relevant papers not listed here.

Physiology of malnutrition

Cahill, C.F. (1970) Starvation in man. N Engl J Med 1970; 282: 668-675.

Chopra, M., Wilkinson, D. (1995). Treatment of malnutrition. Lancet 1995; 345: 788. Link

Forbes, G.B., Drenick, E.J. (1979) Loss of body nitrogen on fasting. Am J Clin Nutr 1979; 32: 1570-1574. Link

Garrow J.S., Pike, M.C. (1967) The short-term prognosis of severe primary infantile malnutrition. Br J Nutr 21: 155–165. Link

Garrow, J.S., Picou, D., Waterlow, J.C. (1962) The treatment and prognosis of infantile malnutrition in Jamaican children. West Ind Med J 11: 217–227.

Golden, M.H., Waterlow, J.C., Picou, D. (1977) Protein turnover, synthesis and breakdown before and after recovery from protein-energy malnutrition. Clin Sci Mol Med 1977; 53: 473-477.

Golden, M.H.N. (1996) Severe Malnutrition. IN: Weatherall, D.J., Ledington, J.G.G., Warrell, D.A., eds. The Oxford textbook of medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996: 1278-1296.

Golden, M.H.N. (1988) The effects of malnutrition in the metabolism of children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82: 3–6.

Golden, M.H.N. (1985) The consequences of protein deficiency in man and its relationship to the features of kwashiorkor. IN: Blaxter, K., Waterlow, J.C., editors nutritional adaptation in man. London: John Libbey.

Jackson, A.A. (2003) Severe malnutrition. IN: Warrell D.A., Cox, .TM., Firth, J.D., Benz, E.J., eds. Oxford textbook of medicine, 4th edn, vol 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press:1054–61.

Jackson, A.A. (1990) The aetiology of kwashiorkor. IN: Harrison G.A., Waterlow, J.C., editors Diet and disease in traditional and developing societies. Society for the Study of Human Biology Symposium 30 Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

Pretorius, P.J., Hansen, J.D., Davel, J.G.A., Brock, J.F. (1956) Skimmed milk and kwashiorkor. S Afr Med J 33: 447–450.

Waterlow, J.C. (1992) Protein-energy malnutrition. London: Edward Arnold.

Waterlow, J.C. (1986) Metabolic adaptation to low intakes of energy and protein. Ann Rev Nutr 6: 495–526. Link

Winick, M. (1979) Hunger disease. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

Anthropometric assessment

Alam, N., Wojtyniak, B/, Rahaman, M.M. (1989) Anthropometric indicator and risk of death. Am J Clin Nutr 1989; 49: 884-888. Link

Berkley,J., Mwangi, I., Griffiths, K. et al. (2005) Assessment of severe malnutrition among hospitalized children in rural Kenya: comparison of weight for height and mid upper arm circumference. JAMA 2005; 294: 591-597. Link

Chen, L.C., Chowdhury, A., Huffman, S.L. (1980) Anthropometric assessment of energy-protein malnutrition and subsequent risk of mortality among preschool children. Am J Clin Nutr 1980; 33: 1836-1845. Link

Hamer, C., Kvatum, K., Jeffries, D., Allen, S. (2004) Detection of severe protein-energy malnutrition by nurses in The Gambia. Arch Dis Child 2004; 89: 181-184. Link

Myatt, M., Khara, T., Collins, S. (2006) A review of methods to detect cases of severely malnourished children in the community for their admission into community-based therapeutic care programs. Food Nutr Bull 2006; 27 (suppl): S7-S23. Link

Prudhon, C., Briend, A., Laurier, D., Golden, M.H., Mary, J.Y. (1996) Comparison of weight- and height-based indices for assessing the risk of death in severely malnourished children. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 144: 116-123.

Velzeboer, M.I., Selwyn, B.J., Sargent, S., Pollitt, E., Delgado, H. (1983) The use of arm circumference in simplified screening for acute malnutrition by minimally trained health workers. J Trop Pediatr 1983; 29: 159-166.

Cognitive development

Berkman, D.S., Lescano, A.G. et al. (2002) Effects of stunting, diarrhoeal disease, and parasitic infection during infancy on cognition in late childhood: a follow-up study. Lancet 359: 564-71.

Chang, S., Walker, S. et al. (2002) Early childhood stunting and later school achievement and behaviour. Journal of Child Psychological Psychiatry 43: 775-783.

Daniels, M.C., Adair, L.S. (2004) Growth in young Filipino children predicts schooling trajectories through high school. Journal of Nutrition 134: 1439-46.

Fernald, L.C., Grantham-McGregor, S.M. (2002) Growth retardation is associated with changes in the stress response system and behavior in school-aged Jamaican children. Journal of Nutrition 132: 3674-3679.

Fernald, L.C., Grantham-McGregor, S.M. (1998) Stress response in school-age children who have been growth retarded since early childhood. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68: 691-698.

Fernald, L.C., Grantham-McGregor, S.M. et al. (2003) Salivary cortisol and heart rate in stunted and nonstunted Nepalese school children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57: 1458-1465

Levitsky, D.A. (1979) Malnutrition and hunger to learn. In Levitsky, D.A. (ed) Malnutrition, Environment and Behavior. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London, pp.161-179.

Walker, S.P., Chang, S.M. et al. (2005) Effects of early childhood psychosocial stimulation and nutritional supplementation on cognition and education in growth-stunted Jamaican children: prospective cohort study. Lancet 366:1804-1807.

Walker, S.P., Grantham-McGregor, S.M. et al. (2000) Effects of stunting in early childhood on growth, IQ and cognition at age 11-12 years and the benefits of nutritional supplementation and psychological stimulation. Journal of Pediatrics 137: 36-41.

Walker, S.P., Chang, S.M. et al. (2006) Effects of psychosocial stimulation and dietary supplementation in early childhood on psychosocial functioning in late adolescence: follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 333 (7566): 472.


Garrow, J.S., Smith, R., Ward, E.E. (1968) Electrolyte metabolism in severe infantile malnutrition. Oxford: Pergamom Press.


Barennes, H., Valea, I., Nagot, N., Van de Perre, P., Pussard, E. (2005) Sublingual sugar administration as an alternative to intravenous dextrose administration to correct hypoglycemia among children in the tropics. Pediatrics, 2005, Nov; 116 (5): e648-53.

Brewster, D. (2006) Clinical appraisal of the management of severe malnutrition: 2, dietary management. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health 42: 575-582.

Brewster, D.R., Manary, M.J., Graham, S.M. (1997) Case management of kwashiorkor: An intervention project at 7 Nutritional Rehabilitation Centers in Malawi. Eur J Clin Nutr 51: 139–147.


Amadi, B., Kelly, P. Mwiya, M. et al. (2001) Antestinal and systemic infection, HIV, and mortality in Zambian children with persistent diarrhea and malnutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2001; 32: 550-554.

Bahwere P, Piwoz E, Joshua MC, Sadler K, Grobler-Tanner CH, Guerrero S, Collins S. (2008) Uptake of HIV testing and outcomes within a Community-based Therapeutic Care (CTC) programme to treat Severe Acute Malnutrition in Malawi: a descriptive study. BMC Infect Dis. 2008 Jul 31;8(1):106. [Epub ahead of print].

Chintu, C., Luo, C., Bhat, G. et al. (1995) Impact of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 on common pediatric illnesses in Zambia. J Trop Pediatr 1995; 41: 348-353.

Fergusson, P., Chinkhumba, J., Tomkins, A. (2008) Impact of HIV on nutritional recovery in severely malnourished children in Malawi. Arch. Dis. Child, 93 (Supplement 1): A25-A27, INTL/TUE/01.

Graham, S.M. (2003) Impact of HIV on childhood respiratory illness: Differences between developing and developed countries. Pediatr Pulmonology 36: 462–468.

Kessler, L., Daley, H., Malenga, G., Graham, S.M. (2000) The impact of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 on the management of severe malnutrition in Malawi. Ann Trop Paediatr 20: 50–56.

Mgone, C.S., Mhalu, F.S., Shao, J.F. et al. (1991) Prevalence of HIV-1 infection and symptomatology of AIDS in severely malnourished children in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1991; 4: 910-913.

Prazuck, T., Tall, F., Nacro, B. et al. (1993) HIV infection and severe malnutrition: a clinical and epidemiological study in Burkina Faso. AIDS 1993; 7: 103-108.

Sadler, K., Kerac, M., Collins, S., Khengere, H., Nesbitt, A. (2008). Improving the Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition in an Area of High HIV Prevalence. J Trop Pediatr. 2008 May 1. [Epub ahead of print]

Ticklay, IM., Nathoo, K.J., Siziya, S., Brady, J.P. (1997) HIV infection in malnourished children in Harare, Zimbabwe. East Afr Med J 1997; 74: 217-220.


Brown, K.H., Gilman, R.H., Gaffar, A., et al. (1981) Infections associated with severe protein-calorie malnutrition in hospitalized infants and children. Nutr Res 1981; 1: 33-46.

Christie, C.D.C., Heikens, G.T., Golden, M.H.N. (1992) ChriCoagulase negative staphylococcal bacteraemia in severely malnourished Jamaican children. Ped Inf Dis J 11: 1030–1036.

Khan, A.M., Ahmed, T., Alam, N.H., Chowedhury, A.K., Fuchs, G.J. (2005) Extended interval gentamicin administration in malnourished children. J Trop Pediatr 52:179-184.

Reid, M.. Badaloo, A.. Forrester, T.. Heird, W.C., Jahoor, F. (2002) Response of splanchnic and whole-body leucine kinetics to treatment of children with edematous protein-energy malnutrition accompanied by infection. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 76(3):633-40, 2002 Sep.


Molyneux, E.M., Maitland, K. (2005) Intravenous fluids – Getting the balance right. N Engl J Med 353:941-944.


Baqui, A.H., Blackm R.E., et al. (2002) Effect of zinc supplementation started during diarrhoea on morbidity and mortality in Bangladeshi children: community randomised trial. British Medical Journal 325: 1059.

Benn, C.S., Martins, C., Rodrigues, A., Jensen, H., Lisse, I.M., Aaby, P. (2005) Randomised study of effect of different doses of vitamin A on childhood morbidity and mortality. BMJ. 2005 Dec 17; 331 (7530).

Doherty, C.P., Sarkar, M.A., et al. (1998) Zinc and rehabilitation from severe protein-energy malnutrition: higher-dose regimens are associated with increased mortality. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68: 742-748.

Golden, M.H.N., Golden, B.E., Harland, P.S.E. et al. (1978) Zinc and immunocompetence in protein-energy malnutrition. Lancet, 1978; 1 (8076): 126-8.

McNally, L., Tomkins, A.M. (2001) A review of the evidence for the benefits and safety of adding vitamin A to the treatment of 6 common health problems in children. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 22: 295-310.

Roy, S.K., Tomkins, A.M. et al. (1999) Impact of zinc supplementation on subsequent growth and morbidity in Bangladeshi children with acute diarrhoea. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53: 529-534.

Roy, S.K., Tomkins, A.M. et al. (1998) Impact of zinc supplementation on persistent diarrhoea in malnourished Bangladeshi children. Acta Paediatrica 87: 1235-1239.

Roy, S.K., Tomkins, A.M. et al. (1997) Randomised controlled trial of zinc supplementation in malnourished Bangladeshi children with acute diarrhoea. Archives of Disease in Childhood 77: 196-200.

Sazawal, S., Black, R.E., et al. (1998) Zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of acute lower respiratory infections in infants and preschool children: a double-blind, controlled trial. Pediatrics 102: 1-5.

Sazawal, S., Black, R.E., et al. (1997) Efficacy of zinc supplementation in reducing the incidence and prevalence of acute diarrhea – a community-based, double-blind, controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66: 413-418.

Sazawal, S., Black, R.E., et al. (1996) Zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of persistent diarrhea and dysentery among low socioeconomic children in India. Journal of Nutrition 126: 443-450.

Sommer, A. (1993) Vitamin A, infectious disease, and childhood mortality: a 2 solution? Journal of Infectious Diseases 167: 1003-1007.

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